Wednesday, 14 October 2015

Types Of Skipping Beats

Arrhythmia divided into two categories which is the ventricular arrhythmia and supraventricular arrhythmia, (Texas Heart Institute,2015). The ventricular arrhythmia take place in the lower chambers of heart termed the ventricles. Meanwhile, supraventricular arrhythmia take place in the area above the ventricles termed the atria. The Bradycardia means that the heart beats is too slow and the Tachycardia means that the heart beats too fast. 

figure 1. Bradycardia
 Bradycardia is a slow heart beat which is less than sixty beats per minute. This condition occurs when the electrical impulse that signals the heart to contract is not formed in the heart’s natural pacemaker which is the sinoatrial node, or it is not sent to the ventricles, (University Hospital Southampton,2015). This type of arrhythmia usually affects elderly people, but there are chances to affect young generations as well. This condition is caused by any one of two factors which is the central nervous system does not signal that the heart requires to pump more or it could be due to the damage of sinoatrial node. The damage of sinoatrial damage could be associated to aging, congenital defects, heart diseases or medicines that is taken to control high blood pressure and arrhythmia.

figure 2.  Tachycardia
Tachycardia is a fast heart beat which is more than 100 beats per minute. There are few types of tachycardia which depends on where the fast heart beat originates, (Mayo Clinic, 2015). If the fast heart beat originates in the ventricles, it is called the ventricular tachycardia. Meanwhile, if the fast heart beat originates above the ventricles, it is called the supraventricular tachycardia.

Ventricular Arrhythmias 
In ventricular arrhythmias it consists of Ventricular Tachycardia, Ventricular Fibrillation, and Premature Ventricular Contractions, (Texas Heart Institution, 2015). . The ventricular tachycardia is a state in which the sinoatrial node no longer controls the pounding of the ventricles and the pacemaker’s role is being taken by the other parts alongside the lower electrical pathway. Since the signal does not move through your heart muscle along the usual route and this condition causes the heart muscle does not beat normally. Thus, this condition would make a person feel as if their heart skip beats and this rhythm cause severe shortness of breath, syncope or fainting. 

Ventricular Fibrillation 
figure 3.  Ventricular Fibrillation
The most serious type of arrhythmia which results from an uncontrolled and irregular beat. A person who suffers from ventricular fibrillation would have numerous impulses that arise at the same time from various locations, (American Heart Association,n.d.). The heartbeat sometimes could reach about 300 beats per minute and may face chaotic heartbeat which means a very little amount of blood is being pumped from the heart to the brain and body and might result in collapsing. Apart from that, individuals who have history of heart attack or heart disease have a high risk of getting ventricular fibrillation. 

Premature Ventricular Contractions
Premature Ventricular Contractions also known as Premature Ventricular Beat is a less serious sort of ventricular arrhythmia. According to Kulick and at el. (2015), this condition occurs when ventricles contract rapidly out of order with the regular heartbeat. Normally there is no treatment is needed for this condition but if the individual have a history ventricular tachycardia or heart disease, it might cause a serious type of arrhythmia. This condition could be caused by caffeine and over-the-counter cold and cough medicine. 
Supraventricular Arrhythmias
In supraventricular arrhythmias it consists of Supraventricular Tachycardia also known as Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia, Atrial Fibrillation, Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome, and Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome, (Texas Heart Institution, 2015). The supraventricular arrhythmia is a state where it originates in the locations above the heart’s lower chambers which is the atria or the atrial condition pathways. This condition, may or may not need treatments and it might be caused by caffeine, alcohol, tobacco or cold and cough medicines. Moreover, this condition would symptoms such as heart palpitations, shortness of breath, chest tightness and a very fast pulse rate. 

Supraventricular Tachycardia or Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia 
figure 4.  Supraventricular Tachycardia
 The supraventricular tachycardia is a condition where regular and rapid heart rate from 150 to 250 beats per minute which beats in the atria. Meanwhile, in the paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia the word paroxysmal means irregularly or from time to time. This condition occurs when the electrical signals in the heart’s upper chambers fire peculiarly, which interferes with the electrical signals that comes from the sinoatrial node and the beats in the atria eventually speeds up the heart rate, (John Hopkins Medicine, n.d.). This condition normally common among infants, young people and most likely to happen in anxious youngsters, women and individuals who are very worn-out. Other than that, chain smokers, alcoholic and individuals who takes coffee regularly have a higher risk.

Atrial Fibrillation 
figure 5.  Atrial Fibrillation
The atrial fibrillation is a fast and irregular rhythm in which single muscle fibers in heart contract or twitch, (National Health Service, 2015). This condition might cause the blood to pool in the heart’s upper chambers and the pooled blood could lead to blood clot. Once the blood clot travels from the heart and blocks the smaller artery in the brain, stroke might take place. Thus, when an individual with atrial fibrillation suffers from stroke, they may need antiplatelet therapy which could prevent the formation of blood clot and causes stroke. 

figure 6. Woff-Parkinson-White-Syndrome pathway
 The Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a cluster of abnormalities caused by additional muscle pathways amid the ventricles and the atria, (John Hopkins Medicine,n.d.). This pathways cause the electrical signals to reach at the ventricles too quickly, and the signals are sent back to the atria. Thus, it resulted a very fast heart rate. Individuals with this syndrome might have symptoms such as dizziness, episodes of fainting, chest palpitations and they are most likely to have episodes of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. 

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome
figure 7. Effect of POTS to the body
 Generally, when an individual stands up, the body makes any desirable changes to compensate for the gravitational stress of adjustment in body posture, (Dysautonomia International, 2012). In order to keep the oxygen-rich blood flow to the brain and the upper body, the heart rate increases and the blood vessels in the lower part of body tighten. For some individuals, this does not occur and affect their capability to stand or continue standing. This is called the orthostatic intolerance. The postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is a type of orthostatic intolerance. The patients with this condition, the blood vessels in the lower body do not tighten when they are standing because
of the gravity causes more blood to flow than normal moves to the lower body. Individuals with this condition may have symptoms such as blurry vision, fatigue, headaches, lightheadedness and fainting. 

Heart Block 
figure 8.  Heart Block
 The Heart block occurs when the sinoatrial node sends its electrical signal appropriately, but the signal is not sent via the atrioventricular, (Texas Heart Institute,2015). The condition is most likely caused by aging or by the scarring or swelling of the heart which at times results from the coronary artery disease. Moreover, it could be caused by the cardiac amyloidosis, that is a condition where the amyloid deposits take of the regular heart muscle. 

According to National Health Service (2014), there are few types of heart block, and named according to the degree of severity.
First-Degree Heart Block. 
figure 9.  First-Degree Heart Block
 The first-degree heart block means that the impulses are travelling via the atrioventricular node too slowly.
Second-Degree Heart Block
The second-degree heart block means that the impulses are moving via the heart's atria but are deferred in the atrioventricular node. Due to this delay the ventricles do not beat at the right time.
Third-Degree Heart Block
The third-degree heart block means that no impulses are reaching to the ventricles. In order to make-up for this, the ventricles use its own backup pacemaker by way of its slower rate. As a gap
in time is probable to happen among the impulse from the atria and the impulse from the backup pacemaker in the ventricles, an individual might faint. This situation is known as a Stokes-Adams attack. The third-degree heart block is very severe and could lead to heart failure or death.


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